Functional and conceptual approaches article pdf available in american journal of human biology 171 january 2005 with 101 reads how we measure reads. Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments. Organisms with the same genotype can express a variety of phenotypes depending on environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity an overview sciencedirect topics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Biological systems have acquired effective adaptive strategies to cope with physiological challenges and to maximize biochemical processes under imposed constraints.
Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. In general active plasticity will thus require a sensing mechanism, a transduction system, and a response system. Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism to change in response to stimuli or inputs from the environment. Jan 15, 2004 phenotypic plasticity is the range and process of variation in body plan and physiology. The editors and the chapter authors are among the leaders of this exciting and active subfield. Functional and conceptual approaches life sciences kindle edition by dewitt, thomas j.
Aug 18, 2017 depending on the organism and trait in question, the environments encountered, and the particular genotype, the plasticity inherent in the developmental process may provide for considerable adaptive adjustment, or alternatively it may lead to inevitable fitness limits. Phenotypic plasticity of carbon fixation stimulates. But observing adaptive plasticity does not prove that the response evolved because it improved survival. Depending on the effect that phenotypic plasticity has on fitness, evolutionary change can take different pathways. Apr 27, 2007 phenotypic plasticity encompasses a wide range of adaptive and non. Underappreciated consequences of phenotypic plasticity for. Evolution of reaction norms in phenotypic plasticity. Assessing the impacts of phenotypic plasticity on evolution. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext.
Phenotypic plasticity implies that the traits of organisms are not constant, as the same genotype may display different phenotypes depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity is rife among nematodes, including c. A highly illustrative example of phenotypic plasticity is found in the social insects, colonies of which depend on the division of their members into distinct castes, such as workers and guards. Apr 01, 2012 phenotypic plasticity among nematodes. Adaptive versus nonadaptive phenotypic plasticity and the. The term phenotypic plasticity has been so widely used e. Phenotypic plasticity in nematodes pubmed central pmc. Apr 27, 2007 we conclude that adaptive plasticity that places populations close enough to a new phenotypic optimum for directional selection to act is the only plasticity that predictably enhances fitness and is most likely to facilitate adaptive evolution on ecological time. Functional and conceptual approaches find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Human phenotypic plasticity how we succeed wherever we find. Ideal for graduate seminars, this volume provides a broad overview for students of evolutionary ecology, genetics, development, behavior, or philosophy of biology.
It has long been known that temporally unstable environments are likely to promote the evolution of plastic adaptations, whilst it is equally clear that such adaptations are precisely those that ch. This broad definition of phenotypic plasticity includes changes in morphology, behavior, physiology, growth, life history and demography, and occurs in response to biotic and abiotic aspects of their environments dewitt and scheiner, 2004. This includes the possibility to modify developmental trajectories in response to specific environmental cues, and also the ability of an individual. Phenotypic plasticity the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes in response to variation in the environment is commonplace. Functional and conceptual approaches life sciences 97801958962 and a great selection of similar new, used and. Functional and conceptual approaches life sciences. Evolution and dispersal under climatic instability. They argue that phenotypic plasticity may be partitioned phylogenetically at several levels and go on to explore these levels, and cold hardiness strategies that they term cryotypes, which in their view constitute cryotypic plasticity. Evolutionary importance and pattern of phenotypic plasticity. Here, we summarize the pfe hypothesis and describe how it can be evaluated in natural systems. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. Thermal performance curves, phenotypic plasticity, and the. Striated muscle tissue demonstrates a remarkable malleability and can adjust its metabolic and contractile makeup in response to alterations in functional demands. Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change.
Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading phenotypic plasticity. Temporal more reliable, predictable cues, observed that plasticity had evolved selection for a plastic phenotype results. Feb 27, 2010 phenotypic plasticity can be defined as the ability of individual genotypes to produce different phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions pigliucci et al. Today, it seems clear that phenotypic plasticity must be recognised as central to evolution rather than a minor phenomenon, secondary to real genetic adaptation sultan, 1992. Yet its evolutionary significance remains controversial, especially in regard to whether and how it impacts diversification and speciation. Phenotypic plasticity was once seen primarily as a constraint on adaptive evolution or merely a nuisance by geneticists. Phenotypic plasticity is one of the major challenges in the study of how organisms will respond to environmental change. Often there is resistance to use of the language and conceptual framework of plastic.
Thomas j dewitt and samuel m scheiner, oxford university press. Author summary organisms respond to different environments by changing how they act, look or function. From the symposium the impacts of developmental plasticity on evolutionary innovation and diversification presented at the annual meeting of the society for integrative and comparative biology, january 37, 2012 at charleston, south carolina. Phenotypic plasticity, functional and conceptual approaches eds. Adaptive versus nonadaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for contemporary adaptation in new environments. Horizontal lines show that the phenotype is the same in different environments.
Phenotypic plasticity, as a paradigm, has broad significance and appeal because it unites. In a recent publication, hawes and bale provide an extended discussion of phenotypic plasticity in the context of low temperature responses of animals. However, some biologists promote plasticity as a source of novelty and a factor in evolution on par with mutation, drift, gene flow, and selection. Control did not select for plasticity spatial did not select for plasticity as well as temporal both still had a negative genetic correlation temporal selection of plasticity, performed well in both environments. Phenotypic plasticity functional and conceptual approaches edited by thomas j. Given that plasticity exists, we next explore the various ways by which adaptive and nonadaptive plasticity can facilitate or constrain adaptive genetic differentia. Phenotypic plasticity and between population differentiation. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity under global change. As a result, plasticity alters numerous interactions between organisms and their abiotic and biotic environments.
Activitydependent muscle plasticity therefore represents a unique. Response to environmental heterogeneity caused by human activity was analyzed on iris pumila reciprocal transplants between native steppe and anthropogenic planted pine forest habitats that were monitored during several growing seasons in a protected area of deliblato sand. These two castes differ dramatically in appearance and behaviour. Multivariate phenotypic evolution in developmental hyperspace.
Phenotypic plasticity, the capacity of a single genotype to exhibit variable phenotypes in different environments, is common in insects and is often highly adaptive. When these responses improve the chances of survival, we call them adaptive plasticity. This book pulls together recent theoretical advances in phenotypic plasticity, as influenced by evolution and development. Functional, structural and molecular plasticity of. Phenotypic plasticity functional and conceptual approaches. Phenotypic plasticity in development and evolution. Plasticity in the purple sea urchin strongylocentrotus. Mar 14, 2014 do invasive species show higher phenotypic plasticity than native species and, if so, is it adaptive. Savedo department of ecology and evolution, stony brook university, stony brook, new york, usa 1 corresponding author. Phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and the origins of. Although much work on plasticity has focused on its patterns of expression and evolution, researchers are increasingly. These claims are controversial and largely untested, but progress has been made on more modest questions about effects of.1334 1002 545 104 1525 311 555 855 349 353 934 112 912 417 993 538 404 601 1422 1121 839 1456 587 259 422 925 355 1235 1325 1471 672 420