The indigenization policy was complemented by the nigeriasation and nationalization policies. Nationalization is a deliberate policy by which government takes over the control and ownership of private enterprises due to economic, political, social and strategic reasons. Two countries may have indigenization policies but will pursue them with different levels of commitment. For instance, late yaradua administration dumped the needs policy and birthed the vision 20. As in the rest of the developing world, most national states have increasingly taken on regulative, welfare and planning functions, and the state has become a major if not the major economic actor in many countries 1. Mugabe argues that indigenization policy is meant to correct colonial imbalances that marginalized blacks in zimbabwe. Currently, the transformation agenda is the one guiding the progress of the country. Simply put, the nigerian indigenisation policy was a government initiative that aimed to recover control of several vital and productive sectors of. Economic independence, indigenization, and the african. This study therefore assumes that the decrease in fdi after 2008 is a result of the implementation of the iee policy. Towards economic survival, selfsufficiency, historical exploration, nigerias indigenisation policy.
Indeed, indigenization, the replacement of aliens with locals, is certainly a prerequisite to economic independence, if not independence itself ghai, 1973. The paper addresses the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of nigeria as it relates to indigeneity, discrimination and educational advancement in nigeria. Information and translations of indigenization in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Indigenisation policy in nigeria pdf indigenization policy is a deliberate government policy aimed at replacing foreign investors and personnel in certain industries with indigenes.
This article evaluates how and to what extent indigenization of social work profession and practice in nigeria can occur. The 1972 contained ii schedules, while the 1977 act contained iii schedules. An analysis of the implementation of the indigenization. The nigerian enterprises promotion decrees 1972 and 1977. Meaning of indigenization reasons for indigenization advantages and disadvantages of indigenization development. The decree sought to reserve certain categories of business operations for nigerian citizens and also allow nigerians to takeover the commanding heights of the economy. This article is brought to you for free and open access by the law.
For example, the ghanaian enterprises promotion bill designed to turn over some 600 wholesale and retail enterprises owned by aliens in that. Indigenisation and economic empowerment act wikipedia. The study also assumes that decline in the flow of fdi in zimbabwe is a result of the implementation of the indigenization and economic empowerment initiative. This act gave birth to the indigenization policy of 1977. Zimbabwes economic policy trajectory since 1980 an analysis of zimbabwes macroeconomic policy trajectory shows an interplay between sociopolitical environment and policy decisions and this is evident in the economic policies crafted and adopted since the countrys independence in 1980 gwenhamo, 2009. Incorporated in 2005, ambit energy corporation is a canadabased oil and gas exploration and production enterprise focused on resources in the niger delta basin in nigeria.
The 1972 act that resulted in the indigenization policy was amended, repealed and replaced by the nigerian enterprises promotion act, in 1977. Postcivil war indigenization policy and its farreaching. Pdf the indigenisation policy and economic emancipation. In nigeria, every administration that is in power comes up with a new policy initiative instead of building the previous one. The structure of the nigerian economy is typical of an underdeveloped country. Nigeria has also applied local content policy in other sectors. On the other hand, there were also influential nigerian leaders such as chief obafemi awolowo, and s. The government should create an environment favorable for private economic activity. Impact of indigenization policy in nigeria products. Pdf black economic empowerment bee has transformed the south. Indigenisation policies pursued in nigeria during the 1970s failed to.
The journal of the nigerian institute of social and economic research 2, pp. Government is amending the indigenisation and economic empowerment act to reflect its policy position that the 5149 percent requirement only applies to. Ambit energy corporations work in nigeria led the company to develop a business model and corporate structure based on the nigerian indigenization policy. Those foreign firms proved irresponsive to many years of moral suasion by successive government of the country for employment of qualified nigerians, for the moderation of their pricing and wage polices, for managerial and technical training and technical training and the. In this account of nigerias indigenization program, nigerias evolution into a oneproduct export economyaccompanied by a decline in agriculture and little industrial growthhappened at the same time that nigerians assumed ownership in basic economic sectors. Nigerian enterprises promotion nep decree of 1972 indigenisation decree has been.
This paper will examine the new policies designed to indigenize the zambian economy and their actual impact on. But instead the policy guarantees security of such investment. Nigeria is africas largest oil producer, and the 10th. Between 2011 and 2012, the primary sector, in particular the oil and gas sector, dominated gdp, accounting for over 95 per cent of export earnings and about 85 per cent of government revenue. Indigenization is the act of making something more native. In this research the focus is on analyzing what happened between the tabled idea and the implemented policy, this is because the implemented policy had a tremendous contradictory impact to the world as. Abdul momoh october 4, at add comment close comment form modal. Privatization and commercialization in nigeria will be a mirage unless institutional reforms take place. Bello, the intentions, implementation processes and problems of the. Nigeriasindigenization policy under fire the new york times. The indigenization policy and educational advancement in nigeria. Review the industrial development policies in nigeria. The elements of nigerias indigenization policy ambit.
Ekukinan, nigerias indigenization policy, presidential opening address, proceedings of the 1974 symposium organized by the nigerian economic society on the subject, indigenization. Implementation of policy has been the achilles heel of most african countries it has been proven that it is a disease of the continents. To create opportunities for nigerian indigenous businessmen. The act requires foreignowned companies to offer at least 51 percent of their shares to indigenous zimbabweans, according to news reports.
Veritas said it is not clear to what extent the indigenization and economic empowerment general regulations of remained in force. The legal problems of indigenization in nigeria uc hastings. This paper seeks to analyze zimbabwes indigenisation policy. Chinas open door policy is seen as a big step of indigenization for their economy, as it is opening its doors to the western world. The industrial sector accounts for 6 per cent of economic activity, while in 2011, the manufacturing sector contributed only. Pdf the indigenization of business ownership in an emerging. It was indeed a bold attempt to enhance the economic survival and selfsufficiency of the nation. Im yet to see a proof that awo asked for nationalisation of foreign companies prior to war. Indigenisation was a major strategy employed by the nigerian government in the 1970s to exercise more control over the nations economy.
Industrial development and growth in nigeria brookings institution. Indigenisation policy and the development of private. The them to penetrate the countries resources and it is not about the majoritys benefit. There is a need to indigenize social work because of the shortcomings and inadequacies of western social work theories and practices in addressing nigerian social problems. Dont bother to post falsified article from obscure site. In the cement sector, nigeria has achieved a significant level of backward integration, with more than 95% of the materials used for cement. Postcivil war indigenization policy and its farreaching consequences by oduasolja. Article information, pdf download for indigenisation of foreign businesses in. The deeper life bible church started as a bible study group at the residence of pastor w. Nigerias indigenisation policy proceedings of the november, 1974 symposium organized by the nigerian economic society on the subject indigenisation. This policy ended up chasing some white farmers out of the country, leading to a lack of any new investment and a huge decline in farm output. It is therefore not surprising that most historical studies on the operations of multinational companies in nigeria during the indigenization era tend to contain limited information on the role of the british government in the indigenization process. Ikoku who thought that a programme of nigerianization of the economy alone would not lead to the.
National economic empowerment and development strategy. Reasons for indigenization the major reason for indigenization is to reduce the domination foreigners or foreign participation in business and encouraging nigerians to own, manage and control strategic sector of. In june 1971, the nigerian government outlined the primary objectives of the indigenization policy as follows. At the same time, policies of economic nationalism nationalisation and indigenisation have become widespread in africa and most hostcountries have levied. The thesis is a comprehensive examination of the nigerian enterprises promotion decrees of 1972 and 1977, and more broadly of the process of indigenisation in nigeria. During the 1970s there has been a growth in the role of the state and an assertion of economic nationalism throughout africa. It is also assumed that respondents give true information that is. The impact of privatization and commercialization in nigeria. Nigerias indigenisation policy 1974 edition open library. Pdf this study sought to evaluate the impact of the indigenisation policy on the socioeconomic emancipation of rural communities in zimbabwe. Both nigeria and zambia have such programs, but whereas nigeria commits enormous political, administrative, and financial resources to its own, zambias is far more modest and even then rarely implemented. A brief introduction to the historical background of indigenisation before 1970 is followed by an account of the timing of the decrees in the context of the oil boom in the countrys economy. As a leading global manufacturer of crushing, grinding and mining equipments, we offer advanced, reasonable solutions for any sizereduction requirements including, impact of indigenization policy in nigeria, quarry, aggregate, and different kinds of minerals. This study therefore interrogates the rationale, methods and impact of nigerias indigenisation policy on the countrys economic welfare then and beyond.110 119 1428 643 653 719 1036 1428 882 1208 1123 35 1101 739 866 589 1299 377 934 552 1481 1376 1122 717 1240 566 1542 631 1446 1230 1367 1167 680 1110 37 759 600 489 657 1101 914 518 175 400 611 1421 323 833